Friday, May 22, 2020

John Locke And Jean Jacques Rousseau - 967 Words

From the ancient Greek city-state of Athens and Sparta to the United States, societies and civilizations have been the cornerstone of human history. However, the formation of these concepts do not simply appear but must instead be created. Thus the concept of a ‘Social Contract’ was formed by philosophers as a means to better understand why individuals would come together to form a society. Two philosophers, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, give their respective opinions on what is the role and purpose of a â€Å"Social Contact’ in their works the â€Å"Second Treatise on Government† and â€Å"Of the Social Contract†. When defining the social contract in the â€Å"Second Treatise on Government†, Locke begins by addressing the state of nature. Similar to other philosophers of his time, Locke states his definition of the state of nature which he describes as â€Å"a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their pos sessions and persons, as they think fit within the bounds of the law of nature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ( Locke, Pg. 365). In addition, the state of nature maintains a type of equality between individuals, with no one holding power another, and the ability to punish those that have wronged you. Still Locke understands that his description is not meant to define â€Å"the state of nature as a sort of utopia† (Uzgalis) as he recognizes the inherit flaws within that system. In Locke’s view, the protection of one’s property and individual liberties serve as the reason why people would willinglyShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke And Jean Jacques Rousseau1270 Words   |  6 Pagesimplementation of a society in which all are guaranteed equal rights has never come to fruition. Through political treatise, formulated essay’s, and prototypical society s, many have attempted to recreate the works of famed philosophers: John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Disagreeing regarding the inn ate goodness of humans, both understand that for a political society to function properly, humans must be given a society in which prosperity is the goal. Therefore, underlying the key theme that cooperationRead MoreJohn Locke And Jean Jacques Rousseau Essay1583 Words   |  7 Pageseconomics, goverments and laws. Dating back to 1588,Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) English philosopher, conditional defender of monarchy as the source of civic order (Explorations, 2014).Three philosophers in particular being Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were the key thinkers within the philosophy of social justice, influencing the main idea of a social contract based on their theories, they suggest that the whole of society have been produced by a general social agreement, social contractRead MoreJohn Locke And Jean Jacques Rousseau1785 Words   |  8 PagesJohn Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were both Enlightenment thinkers concerned with the liberties of men. This concern, along w ith the fact they both believed all men are born into the state of natural equally, induced them to write works concerning a social contract between men. Locke and Rousseau discussed their ideas in the Two Treatises of Government and The Social Contract respectively. Their concerns about liberty in the state of nature led them to generate different accounts of the socialRead MoreThe Writings Of John Locke And Jean Jacques Rousseau1596 Words   |  7 Pageswritings of John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau have had a significant impact on the controversy of what constitutes legitimate political power. They both believe in man’s natural mortality, and they also state that creating a social contract and legitimate government is necessary to avoid conflict. Both philosophers hold different perspectives and opinions, however they are both concerned with the same question: What renders exercises of a political power legitimate? Rousseau and Locke have severalRead MoreA Summary Of Jo hn Locke And Jean-Jacques Rousseau1651 Words   |  7 Pagesthrough education† (Norris, 2017, slide 20). John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two important philosophers of education who showed an actual respect for children and â€Å"wrote treaties that advocated more child-centered, natural approaches for the development and education of the young† (Platz Arellano, 2011, p.54). Although they differed on the nature vs nurture debate, some teaching methods and the education of girls, Locke and Rousseau did agree on many theories and their influenceRead MoreJohn Locke vs Jean-Jacques Rousseau.1663 Words   |  7 PagesJohn Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are great political philosophers that have many similar insights about society and its political form. However, when closely examining the writings of these thinkers, one can easily discover many subtle differences among them. The two philosophers base their theories on different assumptions, which subsequen tly lead to dissimilar ideas about the origin of society and the constitution of governments. As a result, their views of the development of society greatlyRead MoreJean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke: Their Relevance for American Society 1811 Words   |  7 PagesIn Second Treatise on Government and The Social Contract, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau each present and describe their own perceptions of what allows for equality, freedom and democracy. Of the many major ideas developed throughout these texts, the two main distinctions between the two philosophers are natural freedom versus civil freedom and individualism versus collectivism. John Locke, who provided the framework that would allow for liberal democracy, writes that in a state of nature,Read More Comparing John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau2026 Words   |  9 PagesComparing John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau all dealt with the issue of political freedom within a society. John Lockes â€Å"The Second Treatise of Government†, Mills â€Å"On Liberty†, and Rousseau’s â€Å"Discourse On The Origins of Inequality† are influential and compelling literary works which while outlining the conceptual framework of each thinker’s ideal state present divergent visions of the very nature of man and hisRead MoreThomas Hobbes, John Locke, And Jean-Jacques Rousseau All1781 Words   |  8 PagesThomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau all represent social contract theorists who were influenced by liberalism and the enlightenment respectively. They each offer varying takes and critiques of what exactly is the state of nature and from those discussions of the state of nature, they delve into what the state of government would be if it was born from that same state of nature. Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau can each be compared and contrasted with one another based upon their own definitionRead MoreSocial Contract Hypothesis By John Locke And Jean Jacques Rousseau1723 Words   |  7 Pagesfull work and protection by Thomas Hobbes. After Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are the best known defenders of this tremendously powerful hypothesis, which has been a standout amongst the most prevailing speculations inside of good and political hypothesis all through the historical backdrop of the cutting edge West. In the twentieth century, moral and political hypothesis recovered philosophical force as a consequence of John Rawls Kantian adaptation of social contract hypothesis

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Punishment Philosophies - 1704 Words

Punishment Philosophies Abstract The processes by which justice is applied are determined largely by proposed punishment philosophies. These express various concerns and arguments regarding appropriate sentencing and treatment. The philosophy of rehabilitation dominates the proceedings of juvenile courts, and is heavily scrutinized at an adult level, or when the criminal behavior of juveniles continues to accelerate, but when successful is most beneficial for society. The appeals process advances the fair practice of law, helps ensure the rights of due process, and continues to clarify and define justice and the law. Punishment Philosophies†¦show more content†¦One of the most widely applicable philosophies is deterrence, which is the concept that the threat of punishment should prevent criminal activity. Deterrence can be experienced in one of two ways; the first is specific deterrence, which occurs when an offender becomes less likely to reoffend as a result of punishment that he or she has u ndergone, while the second, more preferable form is through general deterrence, by which individuals abstain from criminal activity due to the recognition that others have been correspondingly punished. The psychological effectiveness of deterrence largely depends upon three factors: Celerity, severity, and certainty. The celerity, or swiftness with which punishment is imposed, is critical in the sense that individuals are inherently less likely to be concerned with negative consequences that will be experienced at a more distant time. Essentially, the immediate benefit of a crime is perceived to be more real than those future consequences. Related to this is the certainty or likelihood of punishment; if types of crimes are perceived to go largely undetected or unpunished, the potential deterrence is diminished.Show MoreRelatedAssignment: Punishment Philosophy Paper691 Words   |  3 PagesAssignment: Punishment Philosophy Paper There are five punishment philosophies used in the criminal justice system, deterrence, rehabilitation, incapacitation, retribution, and restoration. (Meyer amp; Grant, 2003) The goal of each philosophy is to prevent criminal offenses from occurring. The first philosophy is deterrence, this philosophy tries to convince people not to commit crimes or violate laws. When a person decides not to do something like parking in a handicapped spaceRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Crime And Punishment1182 Words   |  5 PagesThe Philosophy of Puppetry in Crime and Punishment Consider the design of a puppet. When observing this structure, one will give attention to the source of the puppet’s actions being dictated by the puppeteer. These actions are able to be transmitted from the will of the puppeteer into the puppet through the strings that the puppeteer uses to control specific parts of the puppet. Furthermore, one can infer that the strings of the puppet are the motive behind the puppet’s action. If the puppet’s actionsRead MorePhilosophy of Punishment: Deterrence General and Specific1084 Words   |  5 PagesPhilosophy of Punishment: Deterrence General and Specific Sentencing Model: Indeterminate Sentencing For the philosophy of punishment I chose deterrence, specifically because of the goals and benefit this philosophy. The deterrence punishment is divided in to two separate categories. First on is the general deterrence, the goal of general deterrence is to prevent non-offenders (those who’ve not committed a crime) from committing crimes by exposing non-offenders to the realityRead MorePhilosophies In Fyodor Dostoevskys Crime And Punishment1095 Words   |  5 PagesFor a recent reading assignment our english class was introduced to the master-work that is Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment. Set in 1860s Saint Petersburg Russia, Dostoevsky goes to great lengths to describe his dark and decrepit world in which his characters to inhabit. The events of an axe murder and eventual redemption could have taken place in any setting, but Dostoevsky on the contrary chose this specific time in which to make his commentary on society. Many of the characters of the Read MorePunishment and Sentencing Paper1278 Words   |  6 PagesPunishment and Sentencing Paper CJA/224 Garrett LeGrange September 17, 2010 There are many different philosophies that are in use in the court systems when determining what sort of punishment will be imposed on someone who is found guilty of committing a crime. These philosophies are in use in both the adult courts and juvenile courts. The juvenile court system is similar to the adult courts, but there are many differences between the two. Both court systems try and keep crime from happeningRead MoreCriminal Punishment And The Criminal Justice System1193 Words   |  5 Pagesrevolution in criminal punishment processes. A number of different sentencing reforms have been recently expanded, resulting in a mix of different legal approaches to sentencing in the United States today. I will begin with a brief overview of sentencing philosophies, followed by modern sentencing innovations. Then, I will discuss research evidence regarding social inequalities in punishments before closing with a discussion of uncertain issues in modern research on criminal punishment in the 21st centuryRead MoreLet the Punishment Fit the Crime in the State of California1301 Words   |  6 PagesThe Punishment After having been arrested and charged with the killing of my children’s father, I was subsequently convicted of first degree murder, PC §187a (CA Codes). The sentencing guidelines, here in California, require a judge to adhere to PC §190a which states that, â€Å"Every person guilty of murder in the first degree shall be punished by death, imprisonment in the state prison for life without the possibility of parole, or imprisonment in the state prison for a term of 25 years to life (CARead MoreThe Theory Of Rehabilitating Fender Shifted Into Focus More1212 Words   |  5 Pagesthe state endeavors to rehabilitate, it is attempting to mold the individual to conform to the general morals of society. The three philosophical approaches to the justification of punishment have each shown to have merit as well as flaws. I will now move on to providing my proposed resolution to the issue of punishment. The overarching theme amongst these three theories is that each attempts to safeguard society. Retribution attempts to achieve this by appealing to the general call of the communityRead MoreThe Classical School Of Criminology1174 Words   |  5 PagesDuring the Enlightenment period, Cesare Beccaria developed the Classical School of Criminology with help from philosopher Jeremy Bentham. With the similar philosophies of Beccaria and Bentham, the classical theory of criminology was then developed, creating a strict and proportional criminal justice system. Deriving from the Rational Choice Theory, the classical theory of criminology states that rational behavior can be controlled in order to deter criminal activity. This idea comes from the thoughtRead MoreThe Utilitarian Reasoning Of An Unbiased Manner1167 Words   |  5 Pagesutilitarianism explain or justify societal punishment? According to Murtagh (n.d.), punishment involves the deliberate infliction of suffering on a supposed or actual offender for an offense such as a moral or legal transgression. Utilitarians attempt to justify punishment in terms of balance of good over evil produced and thus focus their attention on extrinsic or consequentialist considerations (Murtagh, n.d.). When attempting to determine whether a punishment is justifiable, utilitarians will attempt

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

John Pope Paul Iii Movie Reflection Free Essays

December 9, 2010 Reflection on Pope John Paul II movie I found the movie Pope John Paul II very interesting and spiritually moving. God tells us in the bible that following him is not free of tribulation. He comforts by telling us he will not put anything against us that we cannot overcome. We will write a custom essay sample on John Pope Paul Iii Movie Reflection or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sacrifice is one the key ingredients that comes with following the Lord. Pope John Paul II is a wonderful role model to follow when it comes to sacrifice. When the Nazis were trying to put an end to religion Karol was busy studying Gods word. By doing this, he is willing to sacrificing his life, because if he was caught he would be killed. He spent much of his younger years with friends, teaching them about human dignity and God. Before his Cardinal Years Karol sacrificed having a wife and children so that he could follow his passion for the Catholic religion and become a priest. After many years he was elected Cardinal and then Pope of Poland. Another moral issue in this film is the commitment of many mortal sins. Murder is the main sin seen throughout the movie. The Nazi’s wanted the polish to be miserable and gave them little freedom. If anyone was found rebelling against their strict laws they would be beaten and killed. This sin is repeated numerous times a day, and in great numbers. Even after the war died down murder wasn’t over. This is seen When Pope John Paul II life was unexpectedly put in danger when someone shot at him while he was making an appearance in public. Pope John Paul II fought for his life and continued to try and bring peace among people. All in all this movie is a wonderful example of what it means to follow Christianity. Pope John Paul II is a delightful man who brought a sense of comfort with him when speaking to the people. I found this movie very enjoyable and would recommend it to many people. How to cite John Pope Paul Iii Movie Reflection, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Napoleon Bonaparte Essay Example

Napoleon Bonaparte Essay A hero is best described as a man of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. Napoleon Bonaparte, French militaristic genius is best described as a hero because of his influence on the French law system, French military and pride or France and its people. Napoleon’s introduction of the Napoleonic Code and his military domination of Europe, were all factors that allowed France to rise above and acquire an extreme pride in the country. Because of the influence he had on not only France, but all of Europe, and now the world, Napoleon Bonaparte can be considered a true hero. In 1804, Napoleon introduced the Civil Code of March, or the Napoleonic Code. This code reasserted equality of all male citizens before the law and absolute security of wealth and private property; two principles of the Revolution of 1789. This code, had a supreme impact on the middle class, and also led to the establishment of the Bank of France. This Bank of France devoutly served the state as well as the financial oligarchy. This bank gratified the needs of peasants most, as Napoleon protected their gains in land and status they had claimed during the revolution. The Napoleonic code can best be described as the starting point of Frances success and national unity. The Napoleonic Code now is represented in not only France, but many other country’s constitutions and codes. Besides having a noteworthy effect on France’s government, Napoleon is most known for his exceptional military skills. We will write a custom essay sample on Napoleon Bonaparte specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Napoleon Bonaparte specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Napoleon Bonaparte specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Napoleon’s charisma and determination brought him to the head of France, and given the opportunity to lead France to victory. Napoleon’s victories began in Austria and Great Britain (the two remaining members of the Second Coalition). In his peace treaty with Great Britain, Napoleon allowed France to remain in control of Holland, Australian Netherlands, the West Bank of Rhine, and Italian Peninsula. Although eventually Napoleon’s army suffered defeat, he accomplished more victories and acquired an extreme amount of land for France. Through Napoleon’s impact on France’s government and military, he gained confidence for France and established a national unity. However his order and unity took a toll on women. Women were forced to being dependent of either a husband or father and had little say. Although these laws were not beneficial to women and all families, they were exactly what Napoleon needed for authoritarian rule. Through his military victories through out Europe, Napoleon gained the votes of citizens and was looked at as a hero and leader of France. Through Napoleon’s, Napoleonic Code and military domination throughout Europe, he can truly be looked at as one of France’s heroes. The irony of his success however, causes controversy after being bullied as a child and banished from his home, Corsica. I believe his struggles only made him stronger, and allowed him to prevail the way he did. Napoleon rose above what others expected of him, with confidence and pride to accomplish his passion. His commitment and dedication to military and artillery also allowed Napoleon to strive in tactics and lead him to be the great leader he is known as today.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Jane Austen Did Not Write Epics

Jane Austen Did Not Write Epics Jane Austen Did Not Write Epics Jane Austen Did Not Write Epics By Maeve Maddox A recent film on a romantic episode in the life of 18th century novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817) has called forth a lot of commentary on the web. Heres the blurb that prompted this article: Becoming Jane: Author Jane Austen (Anne Hathaway) eventually became famous for writing epic novels like Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility. In popular usage, epic is often used to denote extraordinary length or size. For example, someone might try to ask a long-winded companion to get to the point by saying: Just give me the facts. I dont need an epic. Used to denote size, epic is almost always accompanied by proportions. Indeed, so clichà ©d is the expression epic proportions that theres a play with that title. Since the longest Jane Austen novel comes to only about 300 pages, the writer quoted above cannot have meant to use epic in the sense of size or length. When speaking of novels or poems, the word epic has to do with certain aspects of the story and its treatment. The baseline epics are Homers Iliad and Odyssey, stories of larger-than-life national heroes like Achilles and Odysseus engaged in struggles involving the fate of nations or entire races. In the classic sense, epics employ high-flown language. They have lengthy casts of characters, and they often take place over the course of many years. Some well-known novel and film epics are Tolstoys War and Peace, Mitchells Gone With the Wind, DeMilles Ten Commandments, Griffiths Birth of A Nation, Gibsons Braveheart, and Tolkien/Jacksons Lord of the Rings trilogy. The romantic misunderstandings of Miss Bennett and Mr. Darcy, played out in elegant 18th century drawing rooms, belong to a type of novel called the novel of manners. Manners here doesnt mean merely such things as opening a door for a lady or the saying of please and thank you. The novel of manners focuses on domestic matters as opposed to warfare and the realm of the male. The central character is generally a woman and such novels are often written by women, although The Forsythe Saga by John Galsworthy is an example of the genre. This kind of novel describes the way people living at a certain time in a particular place behave, how they arrange marriages, how they bring up their children, what they hope for, and what they settle for. Although usually thought of as a distinctly British genre, the novel of manners occupies a significant place in American literature. The novels of Edith Wharton, Henry James, Kate Chopin, and Claire Messud are novels of manners. Youll find a useful introduction to the genre and its feminist associations at enotes.com. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Fiction Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:10 Grammar Mistakes You Should AvoidDriver License vs. Driver’s LicenseConversational Email

Monday, March 2, 2020

Sugaring Recipes to Attract Moths

Sugaring Recipes to Attract Moths Many moths will come to lights at night, but if you really want to sample the species in an area, you should try sugaring for moths. Sugaring or baiting is an effective and fun way to attract moths to an area. The bait is usually a mixture of fermenting fruit, sugar, and alcohol. When sugaring for moths, you apply the bait mixture to tree trunks, fence posts, stumps, or other structures, usually around dusk. After dark, you visit your bait sites at regular intervals of time to collect or photograph any moths. You can try sugaring for moths any time of the year, but youll have the best results if the temperature remains above 50 °F. Warm, muggy nights are ideal for baiting moths. Making a Sugar Bait for Moths Every moth enthusiast or entomologist I know has their own favorite recipe for sugar bait. The key to effective bait is making a concoction with a strong odor to attract the moths, and a sweet taste to keep the moths around. Finding a mixture that yields good results may take a bit of trial and error on your part. Start with this basic recipe, and modify it to your liking. Basic Sugar Bait Recipe to Attract Moths brown sugaroverripe bananasbeer (stale beer is preferable)molasses Were not baking a cake here, so theres no need to measure anything. Making a good bait for sugaring moths is more a matter of consistency than it is of proportion. You should try to achieve a consistency thick enough to keep it from dripping, but thin enough to spread with a paintbrush. Crush up the ripe bananas and mix them in. Use enough beer to dissolve the sugar. Stir it all together until you have a thick but fluid bait mixture. Some people prefer to age their sugaring bait, by letting it sit at room temperature for a few days. This will allow it to ferment, which will make the bait all the more attractive to the moths. If you choose to do this, dont put your mixture in an airtight container. Use a loose-fitting lid, or cover the container with a paper towel held in place with a rubber band. If you have any stale or skunky beer around, heres your chance to put it to good use. Moths dont mind a stale beer. Other Sugar Bait Ingredients Really, the fun part of sugaring for moths is creating your own perfect bait recipe. Try some of these ideas to modify the basic recipe, and see what works best to attract moths. dry yeast - if youre going to let your mixture sit and ferment, this may be a good addition to tryrumsweet liqueurs, like schnappswhite sugar – can be substituted for brown sugarhoneymaple syruprotting watermelon – some moth enthusiasts swear by watermelon, claiming its the best moth attractant you can findfermenting peaches, pears, or applesblack treacle – a sweet syrup produced when sugar is refinedcola – some people like to simmer the cola, stirring in sugar and perhaps some molasses until it dissolvesorange soda – open it and let it sit for a while, so it goes flat Applying the Sugar Bait to Attract Moths Now that youve mixed your sugar bait, its time to do some mothing! Youll need a paintbrush to apply the concoction. A 3-4 width paintbrush is ideal for this purpose. Take your mixture to the area where you hope to collect moths, and choose a few tree trunks or fence posts that are easily accessible. Paint the mixture on these locations, making about a 12-inch square (smaller, obviously, if the tree trunk isnt that wide) at eye level. If youre planning to photograph the moths, keep that in mind when applying the sugar bait. Make sure the ground is clear of debris or undergrowth, so you can collect or photograph any moths easily. I recommend sugaring the trees around dusk, so the scents of a fresh batch of bait are wafting through the air just when the night-flying moths are waking up from their naps. When youre applying the bait, remember that other insects (ants, anyone?) may enjoy a sugary snack, too. If you want to find moths, you need to be careful not to spill the bait solution as you walk around the area. Dont let the bait mixture drip down the tree trunk, either. You need to make a nice, neat square of sugar bait, without creating trails for ants to follow. If it drips, its not thick enough and you should go back to the kitchen. Adding molasses will usually do the trick. Some people recommend using the bait mixture as a barrier, to keep hungry ants from reaching the bait square intended for moths. Try painting a ring of the sugar bait around the tree trunk, several feet below the moth bait, and also several feet above the moth bait. This should effectively intercept any ants, and keep them preoccupied and away from the moths. Checking the Bait for Moths Now its just a matter of sitting and waiting for the moths to find your irresistibly stinky bait. Youll probably notice the most moth action between the hours of 10 pm and 1 am but check your bait sites every half hour or so. Be careful you dont spook the moths! Dont shine your flashlight directly at the moths. Flashlights with a red filter, or with red LED lights, will make it easier to observe the moths without disturbing them. Keep your flashlight pointing down toward the ground as you approach. As moths in the area detect the scent of the bait, they will fly to the site to investigate. Youll see moths resting on the areas where you applied the bait.   Sources: Discovering Moths: Nighttime Jewels in Your Own Backyard, by John Himmelman Sugaring for Moths, Catocala website, accessed November 19, 2012 Sugaring for Moths, University of Washington, accessed November 19, 2012Sugar Baits for Moths, National Moth Week, accessed November 19, 2012Sugaring for Moths  (PDF), Michigan Entomological Society, accessed November 19, 2012Attracting Moths, Staffordshire Moth Group, accessed November 19, 2012

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The Effectiveness Of Different Training Methods Commonly Used To Lab Report

The Effectiveness Of Different Training Methods Commonly Used To Increase An Athletes Speed - Lab Report Example Besides discussing the trining methods, I will emphsize the importnce nd subtle elements of thletes speed. Most tem nd individul thletes require good ccelertion. However, if we ignore trck sprinters for the time being, the gret mjority of teengers will only ever sprint over distnces less thn 30 metres during competition. This mens tht mximl speed will rrely be reched, nd tht ccelertion plys the most importnt prt in speed nd must therefore receive specil ttention in speed trining. Two spects significntly contribute to ccelertion: first-step quickness nd correct body position. First-step quickness is the bility to move in certin direction s quickly s possible. Often, significnt speed improvements over ten metres cn be mde by eliminting flse step. This is commonly seen when n thlete, wishing to run to his or her right, either rocks bck on to his or her left leg, or, even worse, tkes step bck with his or her left leg, before then beginning to run to the right. By teching the thlete to run immeditely in the intended direction, with low, fst first step, time-wsting movements re voided. s different open field sports require vrying strt positions, it is essentil tht most thletes cn strt sprinting from either foot. (Blzevich, 2005) Body position for ccelertion is different from the ... While mximl speed running requires runner to be firly upright (which llows the legs full rnge of movement through the hips), the idel position for ccelerting is between 45 nd 60 degrees. If sprint begins from stnding strt (s in, for exmple, bsebll nd softbll), the ngle should pproch 45 degrees. However, if the thlete is moving immeditely before the sprint (such s running to receive pss), there is less need for such low position. (Blzevich, 2005) Open field running is where n thlete begins by jogging, but then ccelertes rpidly to mximum speed. In footbll, this sprint my involve chnge in direction, physicl contct in pushing, being pushed, or breking tckle. Fctors importnt in this form of speed re the bility to correctly position the body for ccelertion, nd the bility to initite fst leg turnover. One drill tht cn trin this is clled the 'in/out' drill, where n thlete increses speed over, for exmple, 15 metres, then sprints mximlly for distnce of 20 metres. He or she then slows down over similr distnce before re-ccelerting nd sprinting for further 20 metres. It is lso possible to incorporte chnges in direction for improving sidewys speed. dults usully rech mximl speed during sprint t round 40 metres; it cn then only be mintined for limited distnce before decelertion sets in. Depending on their ge, children re likely to rech mximl speed t between 25 nd 40 metres. For most gmes plyers, mximl speed will rrely be determining fctor in their performnce, nd sprint trining over distnces longer thn 40 metres will usully be unnecessry. However, given tht some thletes (for exmple, trck sprinters) require speed over 100 nd 200 metres, trining will need to concentrte